The world is on track to add 700 million new ACs by 2030, and 1.6 billion by 2050, largely in hot, developing countries like India and Indonesia ... Air conditioners use refrigerants, and some of the most common types — hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs — are powerful greenhouse gases, with thousands of times the warming potential of carbon dioxide. If HFC use continues to grow at its current pace, these chemicals could make up as much as 19 percent of emissions by 2050.

Jakarta is one of Asia’s largest cities, with an estimated population of more than 10 million. About 20 percent of its daily waste ends up in local rivers and canals ... The Jakarta city administration, with help from international donors and the national government, is dredging its 17 rivers and canals — the first time it has done so since the 1970s. The waterways were 70 percent blocked, a central contributor to the city’s chronic flooding problems.

Encompassing 1.4 million square miles...the South China Sea is of critical economic, military, and environmental importance: $5.3 trillion in international trade plies its waters annually; in terms of biodiversity, it is thought of as the marine equivalent of the Amazon rain forest; and its fish provide food and jobs for millions in the 10 countries and territories that surround it. Of those, seven...have competing claims to the sea’s waters and resources.

Banks have financed companies responsible for rainforest destruction in Southeast Asia to the tune of billions of dollars ... Southeast Asia is home to some of the world's most diverse rainforests, but they have come under threat in recent years due to large-scale expansion in industries such as palm oil, pulp and paper, rubber and timber ... at least $38 billion worth of commercial loans and underwriting facilities were provided to 50 companies in these sectors between 2010 and 2015

China and Indonesia are the first- and second-largest fish-catching countries in the world ... dwindling fish stocks in other parts of the Pacific are driving Chinese fishermen — with plenty of government encouragement and financial assistance — deeper into foreign waters ... China believes that it has “historic rights” to all the waters in the South China Sea, whether for fishing or oil and gas drilling, though there is no such concept in international law.

Both the Liang Bua and Mata Menge hominin fossils are evidence of “insular island dwarfism” among hominins ... “dwarfism” in this context does not refer to the congenital disorder, achondroplasia, of a single individual but to an evolutionary phenomenon in which, over generations, body size is reduced in a population of organisms. For island dwellers over a certain size, body size can reduce significantly over time—and often quite quickly, in as few as 2,000 to 3,000 years.

In 2014, Indonesia introduced the world’s largest single-payor health-insurance program, seeking to provide universal healthcare to its approximately 250 million citizens by 2019 ... Looking ahead to the next 10 to 15 years, one of Indonesia’s biggest challenges will be addressing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) ... In 2014, three NCD categories—cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and its complications, and respiratory diseases—accounted for nearly 50 percent of deaths in the country.

Even for a megacity in a developing country, the scale of dysfunction in Jakarta’s ambulance service is enormous ... Jakarta police say more than 1,000 people died in traffic accidents alone in 2010 ... more than double the amount of traffic fatalities in the South Korean capital of Seoul — a city roughly similar in population and area ... and some 250 more fatalities than Bangkok, which has about 2 million fewer people ... adequate emergency response could save as many as 4,000 lives a year

We are currently experiencing the longest global coral bleaching event ever observed ... Reefs that take centuries to form can be destroyed in weeks. Individual corals may survive a bleaching, but repeated bleachings can kill them ... An estimated 30 million small-scale fishermen and women depend on reefs for their livelihoods, more than one million in the Philippines alone. In Indonesia, fish supported by the reefs provide the primary source of protein.

In the United States, Canada, Australia and England, an estimated 40 to 50 percent of supermarket and drugstore items contain palm oil. Over the past 25 years, the global output has grown from 14.5 million to 61 million tons a year...and the land covered by oil palm plantations grew from 15 million to 40 million acres ... Malaysia and Indonesia produce 85 percent of the world’s supply ... in the Indonesian portion...orangutans have lost 50 percent of their forest habitat in the last two decades.