the 3,000 ads that have been linked to Russia are a drop in the bucket, even if they did reach millions of people. The real game is simply that Russian operatives created pages that reached people “organically,” ... their posts had been shared 340 million times. And those were six of 470 pages that Facebook has linked to Russian operatives. You’re probably talking billions of shares, with who knows how many views, and with what kind of specific targeting.

While concerns about political and media polarization online are longstanding, our study suggests that polarization was asymmetric. Pro-Clinton audiences were highly attentive to traditional media outlets, which continued to be the most prominent outlets across the public sphere, alongside more left-oriented online sites. But pro-Trump audiences paid the majority of their attention to polarized outlets that have developed recently, many of them only since the 2008 election season.

Although the vast majority of South Sudan’s population has no internet access — the adult literacy rate in the country is around 30% — social media incitement has had an outsized impact largely because it mainly comes from the South Sudanese diaspora, who are held in extremely high esteem back home ... The online networks spreading fake news and hate speech in South Sudan are surprisingly similar to those that have spread like wildfire in the United States.

Facebook has already enlisted select third-party fact-checkers—Snopes,, ABC News, the AP, and Politifact at launch, all members of Poynter’s International Fact Checking Network—to comb through disputed stories and share their findings with the Facebook community at large. There are no financial arrangements between Facebook and the fact-checkers, or arrangements that would otherwise benefit the groups, and Facebook says it will add more partners going forward.