The single largest tax expenditure in the United States is for employer-based health insurance. It’s even more than the mortgage interest deduction. In 2017, this exclusion cost the federal government about $260 billion in lost income and payroll taxes. This is significantly more than the cost of the Affordable Care Act each year.

untreated dental problems tax our health care system. More than a million Americans a year show up at hospital emergency rooms with nontraumatic dental problems—costing more than $1 billion annually. In Minnesota, about 400,000 preschoolers were brought to hospital emergency rooms with severe oral conditions during a recent five-year period. The visits cost $80 million, the Minneapolis Star Tribune reported last year.

Americans pay the highest health-care prices in the world, including the highest for drugs, medical devices, and other health-care services and products. Our fragmented system produces many opportunities for excessive charges. But one lesser-known reason for those high prices is the stranglehold that a few giant intermediaries have secured over distribution. The antitrust laws are supposed to provide protection against just this kind of concentrated economic power.

When Lyndon Johnson created Medicare, he essentially made up and lowballed the long-term costs of the program. Without a true estimate, it was difficult for fiscal conservatives, medical groups, and other opponents to attack the plan, and it sailed through Congress. In the seventies, Congress mandated a rigorous process to estimate the costs of new legislation and created the Congressional Budget Office, which “scores” all bills.

As many as 25 percent of physicians practicing in the US were born in another country. Rural clinics and public safety-net hospitals, in particular, rely on foreign medical school graduates to take care of isolated and vulnerable populations. They often serve as primary care doctors, filling a vital need as more American-born MDs gravitate toward high-paying specialties.

The race to repeal Obamacare by President-elect Donald Trump and the Republican Congress will have one immediate side effect beyond any doctor's office: a large tax cut for the wealthiest Americans....averaging $7 million for each of the 400 highest-earning taxpayers, according to new calculations by the liberal Center on Budget and Policy Priorities using Internal Revenue Service data.

A crucial question...is whether the increases this year are a one-time market correction or a sign that the Obamacare markets have become unstable. There are several good reasons to think 2017 is an unusual year for these markets ... But one worrisome sign for the future ... there are a growing number of places where there is no real competition ... about 18 percent of people eligible for Obamacare plans live in places where there is only one choice of insurer.

Transgender identity has changed in the D.S.M. too, classified under “sexual deviations” in 1968, “psychosexual disorders” in 1980 and “sexual and gender identity disorders” in 1994. In the fifth and most recent edition, D.S.M.-5 in 2013, the designation was changed to “gender dysphoria,” and was defined to apply to only those transgender people who are experiencing distress or dysfunction

more than 3 million people in the state remain uninsured, and policymakers are searching for ways to reach them. Experts say knowing where the uninsured live and work in California is key to reducing their numbers. City and county outreach efforts can be critical to raising awareness among those who are eligible for federal health insurance programs but not enrolled.

the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that African-American women...face a nearly four times higher risk of death from pregnancy complications than white women. In parts of the U.S. with high concentrations of women of color who live in poverty, such as Mississippi, maternal death rates can surpass those of sub-Saharan Africa .