By midcentury, the world’s fastest-growing region, Africa, is projected to see its population more than double, while the slowest-growing region, Europe, is expected to see its population decline by about 4 percent. This means that in 2050 there will be around 3.5 times more Africans (2.5 billion) than Europeans (707 million). In 1950, there were nearly twice as many Europeans as Africans ... And for the first time ever, Islam will challenge Christianity as the world’s largest religion.

Indian optimism is, in large part, based on demographics. The Chinese population is ageing and its supply of young workers is shrinking... By contrast, 65% of the Indian population was under the age of thirty in 2015, creating a healthy ‘dependency ratio’ of productive workers to old people. Demographers think that India is likely to surpass China as the world’s most populous country, with 1.4 billion people, around 2022. And some economists reckon it might be the world’s largest economy by 2050

By 2030, the number of Saudis over the age of 15 will likely increase by about six million, bringing at least 4.5 million new eligible workers into the labor force, ...That will more than double the size of the adult population, simultaneously stretching the kingdom’s cradle-to-grave system of handouts and subsidies to the breaking point...

By the end of this century, Africa will be home to 39% of the world’s population, almost as much as Asia, and four times the share of North America and Europe put together. At present only one of the world’s ten most populous countries is in Africa: Nigeria. In 2100 five will be: Nigeria, Congo, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Niger. None is a byword for stability or prosperity. A quadrupling of their population is unlikely to improve matters.

Youth unemployment is one of the key challenges facing Arab countries ... the global economic crisis, together with internal situations in some of regional countries, curbed the... growth rate to register the highest global youth unemployment rate of 28 percent compared to 12 percent in other regions ... The youth unemployment rate comes amid the record high growth rate of the Arab labor force which grew by nearly 3 percent between 2000 and 2013 — the highest labor force growth rate in the world

Syrians ... now account for almost one-third of Lebanon’s population ... 400,000 of the refugees are of school age, 3-15 years old, but only ... 37.5%, are studying in Lebanese public schools ... The Ministry of Education has therefore developed an extracurricular, four-month Accelerated Learning Program to enable students to catch up and stay in the educational system ... the Ministry of Education developed afternoon sessions specifically for displaced students to ease overcrowding

Improving girls and women’s health is a crucial issue in a region - Middle East and North Africa - where about one in three people is aged 15 to 29 - or more than 100 million people ... Nevertheless, this is a challenge in most Muslim societies as sexual education for non-married adolescents, especially female, remains a taboo. The prevalence of ... Islamic legislation, has hindered women and girls’ sexual and reproductive health ... Radical Islamic organizations still resist sexual education

The recent recession worsened conditions for many children, but minorities were hard hit and are having more difficulty recovering. The Pew Charitable Trusts found that, from 1999 to 2009, 23 percent of black families and 27 percent of Hispanic families experienced long-term unemployment, compared with 11 percent of white families. Pew Research Center, a subsidiary, found that the median wealth of white households is 20 times that of black households and 18 times that of Hispanic households.

In 2004, Latvia joined the European Union, a major milestone. But far from arresting the decline, EU membership spurred another 10 percent drop in population, or close to a quarter of million people. And with a falling birth rate, the trend lines continue to be negative ... Its population of nearly two million is down by more than a quarter since 1990.

For decades, China’s government has tried to limit the size of Beijing, the capital, through draconian residency permits. Now, the government has embarked on an ambitious plan to make Beijing the center of a new supercity of 130 million people. The planned megalopolis, a metropolitan area that would be about six times the size of New York’s...would be spread over 82,000 square miles, about the size of Kansas, and hold a population larger than a third of the United States.