after decades of affirmative action, black and Hispanic students are more underrepresented at the nation’s top colleges and universities than they were 35 years ago ... The share of black freshmen at elite schools is virtually unchanged since 1980. Black students are just 6 percent of freshmen but 15 percent of college-age Americans,

the odds of non-Hispanic white youths using cocaine were 30 times higher than African Americans ... the findings of the study highlight the incongruity between drug use and incarceration rates along racial lines. According to estimated figures from the U.S. Department of Justice, of the males born in 2001, one in three African Americans and one in six Hispanics will be incarcerated at some point during their lifetimes. By contrast for Caucasians, that number is one in 17.

There are 23 black banks today — far fewer than during segregation, when they were the only option for many African Americans ... Black banks, on average, are five times as likely as traditional big banks to back mortgages for properties in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods ... they were hit hardest by the recession, when a disproportionate share of African Americans lost their jobs and could not make their loan payments.

Research shows that integration benefits all students. But the experience of Howard County...demonstrates that bringing students of different backgrounds together in the same schools isn't enough to ensure their success. Where educators have long spoken of the achievement gap — the differences in academic performance between white students and black, and affluent and poor — some are now focusing on the so-called opportunity gap.

CivicScape claims to not use race or ethnic data to make predictions, although it is aware of other indirect indicators of race that could bias its software. The software also filters out low-level drug crimes, which have been found to be heavily biased against African Americans. While this startup might be the first to publicly reveal the inner machinations of its algorithm and data practices, it’s not an assurance that predictive policing can be made fair and transparent across the board.

online categorizations reflect prejudices from the real world while perpetuating discrimination within it. With more people relying on burgeoning amounts of information available through search engines, designers turn to algorithms to sort out who sees what ... Ultimately, this reinforcement of bias between the internet and its users can exaggerate stereotypes and affect how people perceive the world and their roles in it.

Federal intervention has been one of the few effective means of addressing the racial inequities and civil-rights violations in New York State prisons. It has worked at Elmira for housing and jobs and has been somewhat successful in holding officers accountable for the worst excesses of brutality and discrimination.

The critical battleground of North Carolina is in many ways the ground zero of concerns over access to the ballot among black voters. Republicans in the state have purged thousands of voters from the rolls, the majority of whom are black Democrats. The NAACP filed a lawsuit...stating that the practice of purging voter rolls up to 95 days before an election was a violation of federal law. The US justice department also issued a sharp warning to the election boards in the relevant counties

Imagine if...a newspaper offered advertisers the option of placing ads only in copies that went to white readers. That’s basically what Facebook is doing nowadays. The ubiquitous social network not only allows advertisers to target users by their interests or background, it also gives advertisers the ability to exclude specific groups it calls “Ethnic Affinities.” Ads that exclude people based on race, gender and other sensitive factors are prohibited by federal law in housing and employment.

Blacks and whites sell and use drugs at similar rates... However, the probability of experiencing criminal consequences is much higher, and those consequences are likely more severe, for blacks ... Blacks are 2.7 times as likely as whites to be arrested for a drug-related crime, and receive sentences that are almost 50 percent longer. Furthermore, blacks are 6.5 times as likely to be incarcerated for drug-related offenses at the state level.